Tuesday, March 31, 2009

SAP Tutorial - Part 5 - SAP User Interface

SAP User Interface

The SAP R/3 system presents a Windows interface with several of the familiar Windows functions for screen manipulation. The apparent simplicity of the interface hides the power of the menus residing within the menu bar at the top of the screen. The initial screen shows a menu bar with the following selections. The first level sub menus are listed below to give you an idea of where to start:

Office

Workplace
Telephone Integration
Appointment Calendar
Room Reservations
Start Workflow
Business Documents


Logistics

Materials Management
Sales/distribution
Logistics Execution
Production
Production-process
Plant Maintenance
Customer Service
Quality Management
Logistics controlling
Project Management
Environment Health & Safety
Central Functions


Accounting

Financial Accounting
Treasury
Controlling
Enterprise Control
Investment Management
Project management
Real Estate


Human Resources

Managers Desktop
Personnel admin
Time management
Payroll
Training and Event Management
Organizational Management
Travel
Information system


Information Systems

Executive Information Systems
Logistics
Accounting
Human Resources
Project System
Ad Hoc Reports
General Report System


Tools

ABAP/4 Workbench
Accelerated SAP
Administration
ALE
Business Communication
Business Documents
Business Framework
Business Workflow
CCMS
Web Development
SAP Script
Hypertext
Find

Monday, March 30, 2009

SAP ABAP Interview Questions Answers Vol - 4

What is the difference between Type and Like?
Answer1:
TYPE, you assign datatype directly to the data object while declaring.
LIKE,you assign the datatype of another object to the declaring data object. The datatype is referenced indirectly.

Answer2:
Type is a keyword used to refer to a data type whereas Like is a keyword used to copy the existing properties of already existing data object.

Answer3:
type refers the existing data type
like refers the existing data object

What is Tcode SE16. For what is it used. Explain briefly?
Answer1:
SE16 is a T-code for object browser.
Generally used to search the fields of SAP Tables . and respective data.

Answer2:
se16 is a data browse and it is used to view the contents of the table and we cannot change or append new fields to the existing structure of the table as we cannot view the structure level display using the se16

What are different ABAP/4 editors? What are the differences?
The 2 editors are se38 and se80 both have the abap editor in place. In se38 you can go create programs and view online reports and basically do all thedevelopmet of objects in this editor. In se80 ( object navigator) there are additional features such as creating packages,module pool , function group ,classes, programs ( where you can create ur programs) and BSP applications .

What is difference between dialog program and a report?
Report is a excecutable program
Dialog is a module pool program.It has to be executed via a transaction only.
Dialog programming is used for customization ofscreens

How do you connect to the remote server if you are working from the office for the client in remote place.
WAS web application server or ITS are generally used for this purpose. If you are sitting at your office with a server which is in the system and the other server is at the clients place you can generate IDOC, intermidiate documents which carry the data you want to transfer or the documents you want to transfer, these IDOC are interpretted by the system at the recieving end with the message class with which it is bound with. If you want to logon a system which is very distant..then remote login can be used this depends on the internet speed.

Explain about roll area , Dispatcher, ABAP-Processor.
Answer1:
Roll area is nothing but memory allocated by work process. It holds the information needed by R/3 about programs execution such as value of the variables.
Dispatcher :All the requests that come from presentation server will be directed first to dispatcher. Further dispatcher sends this requests to work process on FIFO(First In and First Out) basis.

Answer2:
Dispatcher recieves the request from client and assigns the request to one of the work process.
Roll area: Each workprocess works in a particular memory that memory is known as Role Area, which consists of User context and session data.
ABAP- Processor :is an interpretor which can execute logic

Which one is not an exit comand ? (Exit, cencle, stop, back)
STOP.
Effect :The statement STOP is only to be used in executable programs

EXIT.
Effect :If the EXIT statement is executed outside of a loop, it will immediately terminate the current processing block.

BACK.
Effect : This statement positions the list cursor on the first position of the first line in a logical unit.

So "Cancle" is not an exit command

What is Field symbol ?
Answer1:
You can use field symbols to make the program more dynamic. In this example the name of a table control is substituted by a field symbol. Thus you cal call the form with any internal table, using the name of the table control as a parameter.

Example
form insert_row
using p_tc_name.

field-symbols type cxtab_control. "Table control

assign (p_tc_name) to .

* insert 100 lines in table control
-lines = 100.

Answer2:
fieldsymbol has the same concept as pointer in c,
fieldsymbol don't point to a data type like char, num instead of that it points to the memory block. the syntax for fieldsymbol is
FIELD-SYMBOL .
EG. FOR FIELD SYMBOL.
DATA: DAT LIKE SY-DATUM,
TIM LIKE SY-UZEIT,
CHAR(3) TYPE C VALUE 'ADF'.
FIELD-SYMBOL : .
MOVE DAT TO .
WRITE:/ .
MOVE TIM TO .
WRITE:/ .
MOVE CHAR TO .
WRITE:/ .
The output will be
Today's date
current time

What is lock object ?
LockObjects used to synchornize access of several users using same data.

Why BAPI need then BDC ?
BAPI"S provide the standard interface to other applications apart from SAP and within differnt vesions of SAP too. Also it is OOD bases so dosen"t depends on screen flow. BDC gets failed if we make changes for screen changes through IMG customization

Saturday, March 28, 2009

SAP Tutorial - Part 4 - Sequential Walk Through

Sequential Walk Through

Sales

Pre-sales activity--planning and availability support for the sales personnel
Sales Order--The actual entry of the sales order into the system done by the salesperson at the point of sales perhaps using a PC and Internet connections.
Determining where the most efficient source of the ordered product is in inventory and shipping it.
Delivery
Customer Billing
Customer Payment


Production

Sales and Operations Planning SOP where the sales forecasts are used in a production planning model to check feasibility.
Master Production Scheduling MPS--The actual plan for the whole production process
Material Requirements Planning MRP--Where the production plan is actually converted into raw materials input requirements.
Planned Order--When materials are available and capacity exists this plan is created
Production Order.
Shop Floor Control where the actual production takes place and is registered into the system as finished goods.


Purchasing

Requisition--Once the Production manager plans to manufacture something a requisition for the raw materials required but not on hand must be prepared.
Vendor Selection--made by the purchasing department
Purchase order sent
goods receipt increasing inventory
Invoice verification as it is received from vendor
Payment to vendor.


Finance and Accounting

Sales events must be captured at the proper time into the ledger system
Inventory must be adjusted to match goods shipped
Inventory must be adjusted to match raw materials received
Inventory must be adjusted to move value from raw materials to work in process
Inventory must be adjusted to increase finished goods when they are produced
Accounts Payable must be set up for purchases
Accounts Receivable must reflect goods billed but not yet paid for
Business Process Engineering must not only identify all these steps but must also find the most efficient way to minimize redundant actions. For example, when sales are made, inventory and manufacturing plans should be automatically updated. When manufacturing plans are updated raw materials should be automatically ordered from vendors. When finished goods are shipped customers should be automatically billed at the same instant. Real situations are far more complex than the simple explanation above. c

Friday, March 27, 2009

SAP ABAP Interview Questions Answers Vol - 3

What is the difference between collect and sum?
SUM.
When processing an internal table in a block starting with LOOP and concluded by ENDLOOP , SUM calculates the control totals of all fields of type I , F and P (see also ABAP/4 number types ) and places them in the LOOP output area (header line of the internal table or an explicitly specified work area).

When you use SUM in a LOOP with an explicitly specified output area, this output area must be compatible with the line type of the internal table.When using LOOP to process a sorted extract (see SORT ), the control total of f at the end of the group appears in the field SUM(f) - - if f is type I , F or P .

COLLECT.
COLLECT is used to create unique or compressed datsets. The key fields are the default key fields of the internal table itab .

If you use only COLLECT to fill an internal table, COLLECT makes sure that the internal table does not contain two entries with the same default key fields.

If, besides its default key fields, the internal table contains number fields,the contents of these number fields are added together if the internal table already contains an entry with the same key fields.

If the default key of an internal table processed with COLLECT is blank, all the values are added up in the first table line.

If you specify wa INTO , the entry to be processed is taken from the explicitly specified work area wa . If not, it comes from the header line of the internal table itab .

After COLLECT , the system field SY-TABIX contains the index of the - existing or new - table entry with default key fields which match those of the entry to be processed.

COLLECT can create unique or compressed datasets and should be used precisely for this purpose. If uniqueness or compression are unimportant, or two values with identical default key field values could not possibly occur in your particular task, you should use APPEND instead. However, for a unique or compressed dataset which is also efficient, COLLECT is the statement to use.

If you process a table with COLLECT , you should also use COLLECT to fill it. Only by doing this can you guarantee that the internal table will actually be unique or compressed, as described above and COLLECT will run very efficiently.

If you use COLLECT with an explicitly specified work area, it must be compatible with the line type of the internal table.

How we format the data before before write statement in report ?
We can format the reports output by using the loop events like:

1.at first
2.at new
3.at last
etc check docu

What is the difference between Table and Template?
table is a dynamic and template is a static

When do we use End-of-selection?
End-of-selection event are mostly used when we are writing HR-ABAP code. In the HR-ABAP code, data is retrived in the Start-of-selection event and Printing on the list and all will be done in End-of-selection event.

In events start-of-selection is default event. When we have to use this event explicitly? Why?
The default event in the ABAP is Start-of-selection.We have to call explicitely this event when you are writing other than ths event , that is when you write AT SELECTION-SCREEN EVENTS OR INITIALIZATION EVENT etc,you have to explicitely mention the Start-of-selection event while you are writing the logic.

Before these events called ,all the code you have written come into this default Start-of-selection screen event.

What is the differences between ABAP and OOABAP. In which situation we use OOABAP?
OOABAP is used to develop BSP/PCUI applications and also anthing involved object oriented like BADIs, SmartForms..etc.where as ABAP is used to develop traditional programs in R/3.

What is table buffer? Which type of tables used this buffer?
buffer is nothing but a memory area. table is buffered means that table information is available on application server. when you call data from database table it will come from application server.

transperent and pooled tables are buffered. cluster tables can not buffered.

What is the use of pretty printer ?
Exactly where can we link the functional module to abap coding.

Pretty Printer is used to format the ABAP Code we write in ABAP Editor ,like KEY WORDS in Capitals and remaining are in small letters which is also depend on system settings.

We can call the function module in the ABAP Code .Press the Pattern button on Appl. tool bar then u will get box where u write the function module NAME which u want to call in the code by selecting the radio button CALL FUNCTION. In this way we link function module to ABAP Code.

What is the difference between SAP memory and ABAP memory?
Answer1:
data sending between main sessions using get parameter and set parameter is sap memory
data sending between internal sessions using import or export parameters is abap memory

Answer2:
sap memory is a global memory whereas abap memory is local memory.

For example, we have four programs in abap memory and assigned some varibles to a particular program in abap memory then those varibles can't be used by anyother program in abap memory i.e., the variables are only for that program and also local to that memory,whereas sap memory can access all the abap memory or else it can perform any kind of modifications.

Answer3:
SAP memory is available to the user during the entire terminal session.
ABAP memory is available to the user during life time of external session.

Wednesday, March 25, 2009

SAP Tutorial - Part 3 - System-Wide Features

SAP uses certain system wide features that should be understood at the outset. These are used to logically, safely and flexibly organize the data in a business enterprise.

Customizing

is the configuring of the system to represent your organization's legal structure, reporting requirements and business processes. Internal reporting is a managerial tool in the daily operations. External reporting is required by governmental units controlling the legal structure of the corporation, such as, the IRS state taxing authorities, SEC etc.

Organizational Elements

Financial

client is a legal and organizationally independent unit at the highest level in SAP

company is an independent legal entity within a client

business areas are used to produce profit and loss statements and balanced sheets across marketing lines

Materials Management

1. Purchasing units
2. Plants

Sales and Distribution

1. Sales Organization
2. Distribution channel
3. Division

Master Data is records that remain in the database over an extended period of time. Examples:

1. Customer Master
2. Vendor Master
3. Material master
4. Account Master

This structure eliminates redundant data and is shared by all SAP Modules. It is a critical aspect of the robustness of the system.

Employee Self Service - your employees have access to the own HR records over the Internet.

Classification is the assignment of objects to a class. Each class has standard characteristics.

Matchcodes are query tools used to find specific information using search methods.

Security is administered for objects, profiles and authorizations. Users are only authorized to see or change the parts of the system required by their job responsibilities.

Business Processes and SAP Functionality




System-Wide Features


In order to understand a system like SAP a thorough understanding of the events and relationships that take place in a business is required. It is not enough to just realize the Sales, Production, Finance and Accounting have jobs to do in a business. The exact details of each action, the timing of that action and its interrelationships with every other process must be understood. In many large operations there may be no person that has a complete grasp of the situation. Before an operation can be automated or computerized a thorough study of the business must be undertaken. This task is called Business Process Engineering.

Tuesday, March 24, 2009

SAP ABAP Interview Questions Answers Vol - 2

What is ITS?
What are the merits of ITS?- ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa. Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime.

What is DynPro?
DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.

What are screen painter and menu painter?
Screen painter: Screen painter is a tool to design and maintain screen and its elements. It allows user to create GUI screens for the transactions. Attributes, layout, filed attributes and flow logic are the elements of Screen painter. Menu painter: Menu painter is a tool to design the interface components. Status, menu bars, menu lists, F-key settings, functions and titles are the components of Menu painters. Screen painter and menu painter both are the graphical interface of an ABAP/4 applications.

What are the components of SAP scripts?
SAP scripts is a word processing tool of SAP which has the following components: Standard text. It is like a standard normal documents. Layout sets. - Layout set consists of the following components: Windows and pages, Paragraph formats, Character formats. Creating forms in the R/3 system. Every layout set consists of Header, paragraph, and character string. ABAP/4 program.

What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?
ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. In such cases, this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options.

What are the events in ABAP/4 language?

Initialization, At selection-screen, Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection, At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST.

What is CTS and what do you know about it?
The Change and Transport System (CTS) is a tool that helps you to organize development projects in the ABAP Workbench and in Customizing, and then transport the changes between the SAP Systems and clients in your system landscape. This documentation provides you with an overview of how to manage changes with the CTS and essential information on setting up your system and client landscape and deciding on a transport strategy. Read and follow this documentation when planning your development project.

What are logical databases? What are the advantages/ dis-advantages of logical databases?
To read data from a database tables we use logical database. A logical database provides read-only access to a group of related tables to an ABAP/4 program. Advantages: i)check functions which check that user input is complete, correct,and plausible. ii)Meaningful data selection. iii)central authorization checks for database accesses. iv)good read access performance while retaining the hierarchical data view determined by the application logic. dis advantages: i)If you donot specify a logical database in the program attributes,the GET events never occur. ii)There is no ENDGET command,so the code block associated with an event ends with the next event statement (such as another GET or an END-OF-SELECTION).

What is a batch input session?
BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.

How to upload data using CATT ?
These are the steps to be followed to Upload data through CATT: Creation of the CATT test case & recording the sample data input. Download of the source file template. Modification of the source file. Upload of the data from the source file.

What is Smart Forms?
Smart Forms allows you to create forms using a graphical design tool with robust functionality, color, and more. Additionally, all new forms developed at SAP will be created with the new Smart Form solution.

How can I make a differentiation between dependent and independent data?
Client dependent or independent transfer requirements include client specific or cross client objects in the change requests. Workbench objects like SAPscripts are client specific, some entries in customizing are client independent. If you display the object list for one change request, and then for each object the object attributes, you will find the flag client specific. If one object in the task list has this flag on, then that transport will be client dependent.

What is the difference between macro and subroutine?
Macros can only be used in the program the are defined in and only after the definition are expanded at compilation / generation. Subroutines (FORM) can be called from both the program the are defined in and other programs . A MACRO is more or less an abbreviation for some lines of code that are used more than once or twice. A FORM is a local subroutine (which can be called external). A FUNCTION is (more or less) a subroutine that is called external. Since debugging a MACRO is not really possible, prevent the use of them (I’ve never used them, but seen them in action). If the subroutine is used only local (called internal) use a FORM. If the subroutine is called external (used by more than one program) use a FUNCTION.

What is the differences between structure and table in data dictionary in ABAP?
Structure and table both are 2/2 matrices but there are many differences between table and structure.

1. Table can store the data physically but a structure dose not store.
2. Table can have primary key but a structure dose not have.
3. Table can have the technical attribute but a structure dose not have.

structure doesn't contain technical attributes.
structure doesn't contain primary key.
structure doesn't stores underline database level.

Sunday, March 22, 2009

SAP Tutorial - Part 2 - SAP Application Modules

SAP Application Modules

SAP has several layers. The Basis System is the heart of the data operations and should be not evident to higher level or managerial users. Other customizing and implementation tools exist also. The heart of the system from a manager's viewpoint are the application modules. These modules may not all be implemented in a typical company but they are all related and are listed below:

FI Financial Accounting--designed for automated management and external reporting of general ledger, accounts receivable, accounts payable and other sub-ledger accounts with a user defined chart of accounts. As entries are made relating to sales production and payments journal entries are automatically posted. This connection means that the "books" are designed to reflect the real situation.

CO Controlling--represents the company's flow of cost and revenue. It is a management instrument for organizational decisions. It too is automatically updated as events occur.

AM Asset Management--designed to manage and supervise individual aspects of fixed assets including purchase and sale of assets, depreciation and investment management.

PS Project System--is designed to support the planning, control and monitoring of long-term, highly complex projects with defined goals.

WF Workflow--links the integrated SAP application modules with cross-application technologies, tools and services

IS Industry Solutions--combine the SAP application modules and additional industry-specific functionality. Special techniques have been developed for industries such as banking, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, etc.

HR Human Resources--is a complete integrated system for supporting the planning and control of personnel activities.

PM Plant Maintenance--In a complex manufacturing process maintenance means more than sweeping the floors. Equipment must be services and rebuilt. These tasks affect the production plans.

MM Materials Management--supports the procurement and inventory functions occurring in day-to-day business operations such as purchasing, inventory management, reorder point processing, etc.

QM Quality Management--is a quality control and information system supporting quality planning, inspection, and control for manufacturing and procurement.

PP Production Planning--is used to plan and control the manufacturing activities of a company. This module includes; bills of material, routings, work centers, sales and operations planning, master production scheduling, material requirements planning, shop floor control, production orders, product costing, etc.

SD Sales and Distribution--helps to optimize all the tasks and activities carried out in sales, delivery and billing. Key elements are; pre-sales support, inquiry processing, quotation processing, sales order processing, delivery processing, billing and sales information system

Saturday, March 21, 2009

SAP ABAP Interview Questions Vol - 1

What is an ABAP?
ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming language created by the German software company SAP. It is currently positioned as the language for programming SAP's Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. Its syntax is somewhat similar to COBOL.

What is an ABAP data dictionary?
ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.

What are domains and data element?
Domains:Domain is the central object for describing the technical characteristics of an attribute of an business objects. It describes the value range of the field. Data Element: It is used to describe the semantic definition of the table fields like description the field. Data element describes how a field can be displayed to end-user.

What is foreign key relationship?
A relationship which can be defined between tables and must be explicitly defined at field level. Foreign keys are used to ensure the consistency of data. Data entered should be checked against existing data to ensure that there are now contradiction. While defining foreign key relationship cardinality has to be specified. Cardinality mentions how many dependent records or how referenced records are possible.

Describe data classes.
Master data: It is the data which is seldom changed. Transaction data: It is the data which is often changed. Organization data: It is a customizing data which is entered in the system when the system is configured and is then rarely changed. System data:It is the data which R/3 system needs for itself.

What are indexes?
Indexes are described as a copy of a database table reduced to specific fields. This data exists in sorted form. This sorting form ease fast access to the field of the tables. In order that other fields are also read, a pointer to the associated record of the actual table are included in the index. The indexes are activated along with the table and are created automatically with it in the database.

Difference between transparent tables and pooled tables.

Transparent tables: Transparent tables in the dictionary has a one-to-one relation with the table in database. Its structure corresponds to single database field. Table in the database has the same name as in the dictionary. Transparent table holds application data. Pooled tables. Pooled tables in the dictionary has a many-to-one relation with the table in database. Table in the database has the different name as in the dictionary. Pooled table are stored in table pool at the database level.

What is an ABAP/4 Query?
ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. - For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.

What is BDC programming?
Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications). The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.

What are the functional modules used in sequence in BDC?
These are the 3 functional modules which are used in a sequence to perform a data transfer successfully using BDC programming: BDC_OPEN_GROUP - Parameters like Name of the client, sessions and user name are specified in this functional modules. BDC_INSERT - It is used to insert the data for one transaction into a session. BDC_CLOSE_GROUP - This is used to close the batch input session.

What are internal tables?
Internal tables are a standard data type object which exists only during the runtime of the program. They are used to perform table calculations on subsets of database tables and for re-organizing the contents of database tables according to users need.

SAP Tutorial - Part 1 - What is SAP

What is SAP?

SAP is the leading Enterprise Information and Management Package worldwide. Use of this package makes it possible to track and manage, in real-time, sales, production, finance accounting and human resources in an enterprise.

SAP the company was founded in Germany in 1972 by five ex-IBM engineers. In case you’re ever asked, SAP stands for Systeme, Andwendungen, Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung which - translated to English - means Systems, Applications, Products in Data Processing. So now you know! Being incorporated in Germany, the full name of the parent company is SAP AG. It is located in Walldorf, Germany which is close to the beautiful town of Heidelberg. SAP has subsidiaries in over 50 countries around the world from Argentina to Venezuela (and pretty much everything in between). SAP America (with responsibility for North America, South America and Australia - go figure!) is located just outside Philadelphia, PA.

The original five founders have been so successful that they have multiplied many times over such that SAP AG is now the third largest software maker in the world, with over 17,500 customers (including more than half of the world's 500 top companies). SAP employs over 27,000 people worldwide today, and had revenues of $7.34 billion and Net Income of $581 million in FY01. SAP is listed in Germany (where it is one of the 30 stocks which make up the DAX) and on the NYSE (ticker:SAP).

There are now 44,500 installations of SAP, in 120 countries, with more then 10 million users!

So what made this company so successful? Back in 1979 SAP released SAP R/2 (which runs on mainframes) into the German market. SAP R/2 was the first integrated, enterprise wide package and was an immediate success. For years SAP stayed within the German borders until it had penetrated practically every large German company. Looking for more growth, SAP expanded into the remainder of Europe during the 80's. Towards the end of the 80's, client-server architecture became popular and SAP responded with the release of SAP R/3 (in 1992). This turned out to be a killer app for SAP, especially in the North American region into which SAP expanded in 1988.

The success of SAP R/3 in North America has been nothing short of stunning. Within a 5 year period, the North American market went from virtually zero to 44% of total SAP worldwide sales. SAP America alone employs more than 3,000 people and has added the names of many of the Fortune 500 to it’s customer list (8 of the top 10 semiconductor companies, 7 of the top 10 pharmaceutical companies etc). SAP today is available in 46 country-specific versions, incorporating 28 languages including Kanji and other double-byte character languages. SAP also comes in 21 industry-specific versions.

SAP R/3 is delivered to a customer with selected standard process turned on, and many many other optional processes and features turned off. At the heart of SAP R/3 are about 10,000 tables which control the way the processes are executed. Configuration is the process of adjusting the settings of these tables to get SAP to run the way you want it to. Think of a radio with 10,000 dials to tune and you’ll get the picture. Functionality included is truly enterprise wide including: Financial Accounting (e.g. general ledger, accounts receivable etc), Management Accounting (e.g. cost centers, profitability analysis etc), Sales, Distribution, Manufacturing, Production Planning, Purchasing, Human Resources, Payroll etc etc etc. For a full description of the modules included in SAP, see the related articles. All of these modules are tightly integrated which – as you will find out – is a huge blessing ... but brings with it special challenges.

SAP are maintaining and increasing their dominance over their competitors through a combination of

embracing the internet with mySAP.com (a confusing name we believe) to head off i2 etc

extending their solutions with CRM to head off Siebel

adding functionality to their industry solutions

What Makes SAP different?

Traditional computer information systems used by many businesses today have been developed to accomplish some specific tasks and provide reports and analysis of events that have already taken place. Examples are accounting general ledger systems. Occasionally, some systems operate in a "real-time" mode that is, have up to date information in them and can be used to actually control events. A typical company has many separate systems to manage different processes like production, sales and accounting. Each of these systems has its own databases and seldom passes information to other systems in a timely manner.

SAP takes a different approach. There is only one information system in an enterprise, SAP. All applications access common data. Real events in the business initiate transactions. Accounting is done automatically by events in sales and production. Sales can see when products can be delivered. Production schedules are driven by sales. The whole system is designed to be real-time and not historical.

SAP structure embodies what are considered the "best business practices". A company implementing SAP adapts it operations to it to achieve its efficiencies and power.

The process of adapting procedures to the SAP model involves "Business Process Re-engineering" which is a logical analysis of the events and relationships that exist in an enterprise's operations.

SAP Interview Questions Answers Vol - 1

What is SAP?
SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package.

SAP Basics feature

* Configuration of the SAP modules
o Transaction SPRO - this is the main tree for all the configuration.
* Function Key
o F1 - Help
o F4 - Possible entries or matchcode for the field you are accessing
o F5 - Selection screen
o F7 - Previous screen
o F8 - Next screen
o F9 - Technical info
o CTRL+X - Cut
o CTRL+C - Copy
o CTRL+V - Paste
* Navigation
o /n Skip to the next record if you are processing one batch input session
o /bend Cancel a batch input foreground process
o /nend Close all R/3 sessions and logoff
o /nxxx x Call the transaction xxxx in the same session
o /o Generate a session list
o /oxxx x Call the transaction xxxx in an additional session
o /i Delete the current session
o /h Turn the debug mode on
o /$tab Reset all buffers (for System Administrators)
o /$syn c Synchronize instances buffers (for System Administrators)

In 4.x, you can have long SAP transaction code up to a maximum of 20 character


Different types of ERP ?
SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.

What is ERP?
ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.

Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?

Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.

Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?
There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.

Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?
Certainly. You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.

What is IDES?
International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.

What is WF and its importance?
Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.

What is SAP R/3?
A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.

What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?
The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.

Friday, March 20, 2009

Step 1. How to Create Blog

Hello All,

This is second release and I am staring with first step of Google Adsense.

1. Create blog by using http://blogspot.com/




2. Click on CREATE A BLOG button. Fill Up required details and Click on Continue button at bottom




3. Enter blog unique blogaddress in Below Screen. And click Continue.



4. Choose template and click Continue.




5. Your blog is ready for blogging.

Tuesday, March 17, 2009

How to get Data Entry Work From Internet

As more companies are looking for ways to save money, the number of work from home data entry jobs are increasing. Corporations are looking at ways to cut excess costs, and by creating work from home data entry jobs, companies do not have to pay a number of the benefits and other costs associated with staffing an office. If you have the right skills, you may find that work from home data entry jobs may be just the right fit for your desire to work out of your home.



If you are considering work from home data entry as a career, you will need to take into a few considerations about work from home data entry jobs. Most often these jobs are not full-time, meaning they do not come with benefits like vacation, health insurance, and more. You will have to make sure that you can provide those items on your own. By not paying benefits, companies can save significantly.



Since your work from home data entry job may not be full-time, you may have to expand your search for companies that are hiring work from home data entry people. You can look in a variety of resources to find work from home data entry positions. These jobs are advertised in the classifieds and on the web. You can find a number of work from home data entry jobs on several work from home websites.



If you are looking for work from home data entry positions, you need to be sure that you are looking at legitimate positions. For all the legitimate work from home data entry jobs available, there are some people out there that will use your desire to work out of your home to take advantage of you.



Be sure you do not fall for any work from home data entry job scams. Never pay anyone for data entry jobs. There are plenty of places to look for work from home data entry jobs for free. Also, beware of any company promising your work from home data entry positions in exchange for your personal or financial information. Be sure to check into any company you are considering working with to make sure you are being hired for legitimate work from home data entry jobs.


What skills do you need for work from home data entry jobs? Basically you should have the ability to use a computer well. You should be able to read and count. Yet more advanced skills may be needed, as some data entry also involves proofreading, editing, and more advanced knowledge on certain subjects. Many companies require that you have access to a computer, phone line, and sometimes even a fax. You will also need to be diligent in getting work done and maintaining deadlines.

How to Send SMS Messages from a Computer / PC?

In general, there are two ways to send SMS messages from a computer / PC to a mobile phone:

Connect a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to a computer / PC. Then use the computer / PC and AT commands to instruct the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to send SMS messages.

Connect the computer / PC to the SMS center (SMSC) or SMS gateway of a wireless carrier or SMS service provider. Then send SMS messages using a protocol / interface supported by the SMSC or SMS gateway.

If you do not want to develop SMS software or applications but just want to use your computer / PC to send text messages, you may want to read our Quick Guide for Non-Developers.




The 1st Way: Sending SMS Messages from a Computer Using a Mobile Phone or GSM/GPRS Modem
The SMS specification has defined a way for a computer to send SMS messages through a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. A GSM/GPRS modem is a wireless modem that works with GSM/GPRS wireless networks. A wireless modem is similar to a dial-up modem. The main difference is that a wireless modem transmits data through a wireless network whereas a dial-up modem transmits data through a copper telephone line. More information about GSM/GPRS modems will be provided in the section "Introduction to GSM / GPRS Wireless Modems". Most mobile phones can be used as a wireless modem. However, some mobile phones have certain limitations comparing to GSM/GPRS modems. This will be discussed in the section "Which is Better: Mobile Phone or GSM / GPRS Modem" later.

To send SMS messages, first place a valid SIM card from a wireless carrier into a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem, which is then connected to a computer. There are several ways to connect a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to a computer. For example, they can be connected through a serial cable, a USB cable, a Bluetooth link or an infrared link. The actual way to use depends on the capability of the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. For example, if a mobile phone does not support Bluetooth, it cannot connect to the computer through a Bluetooth link.

After connecting a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to a computer, you can control the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem by sending instructions to it. The instructions used for controlling the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem are called AT commands. (AT commands are also used to control dial-up modems for wired telephone system.) Dial-up modems, mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems support a common set of standard AT commands. In addition to this common set of standard AT commands, mobile phones and GSM/GPRS modems support an extended set of AT commands. One use of the extended AT commands is to control the sending and receiving of SMS messages.

The following table lists the AT commands that are related to the writing and sending of SMS messages:




AT command
Meaning

+CMGS
Send message

+CMSS
Send message from storage

+CMGW
Write message to memory

+CMGD
Delete message

+CMGC
Send command

+CMMS
More messages to send





One way to send AT commands to a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem is to use a terminal program. A terminal program's function is like this: It sends the characters you typed to the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. It then displays the response it receives from the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem on the screen. The terminal program on Microsoft Windows is called HyperTerminal. More details about the use of Microsoft HyperTerminal can be found in the "How to Use Microsoft HyperTerminal to Send AT Commands to a Mobile Phone or GSM/GPRS Modem" section of this SMS tutorial.

Below shows a simple example that demonstrates how to use AT commands and the HyperTerminal program of Microsoft Windows to send an SMS text message. The lines in bold type are the command lines that should be entered in HyperTerminal. The other lines are responses returned from the GSM / GPRS modem or mobile phone.




AT
OK
AT+CMGF=1
OK
AT+CMGW="+85291234567"
> A simple demo of SMS text messaging.
+CMGW: 1

OK
AT+CMSS=1
+CMSS: 20

OK




Here is a description of what is done in the above example:

Line 1: "AT" is sent to the GSM / GPRS modem to test the connection. The GSM / GPRS modem sends back the result code "OK" (line 2), which means the connection between the HyperTerminal program and the GSM / GPRS modem works fine.

Line 3: The AT command +CMGF is used to instruct the GSM / GPRS modem to operate in SMS text mode. The result code "OK" is returned (line 4), which indicates the command line "AT+CMGF=1" has been executed successfully. If the result code "ERROR" is returned, it is likely that the GSM / GPRS modem does not support the SMS text mode. To confirm, type "AT+CMGF=?" in the HyperTerminal program. If the response is "+CMGF: (0,1)" (0=PDU mode and 1=text mode), then SMS text mode is supported. If the response is "+CMGF: (0)", then SMS text mode is not supported.

Line 5 and 6: The AT command +CMGW is used to write an SMS text message to the message storage of the GSM / GPRS modem. "+85291234567" is the recipient mobile phone number. After typing the recipient mobile phone number, you should press the Enter button of the keyboard. The GSM / GPRS modem will then return a prompt "> " and you can start typing the SMS text message "A simple demo of SMS text messaging.". When finished, press Ctrl+z of the keyboard.

Line 7: "+CMGW: 1" tells us that the index assigned to the SMS text message is 1. It indicates the location of the SMS text message in the message storage.

Line 9: The result code "OK" indicates the execution of the AT command +CMGW is successful.

Line 10: The AT command +CMSS is used to send the SMS text message from the message storage of the GSM / GPRS modem. "1" is the index of the SMS text message obtained from line 7.

Line 11: "+CMSS: 20" tells us that the reference number assigned to the SMS text message is 20.

Line 13: The result code "OK" indicates the execution of the AT command +CMSS is successful.

To send SMS messages from an application, you have to write the source code for connecting to and sending AT commands to the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem, just like what a terminal program does. You can write the source code in C, C++, Java, Visual Basic, Delphi or other programming languages you like. However, writing your own code has a few disadvantages:

You have to learn how to use AT commands.

You have to learn how to compose the bits and bytes of an SMS message. For example, to specify the character encoding (e.g. 7-bit encoding and 16-bit Unicode encoding) of an SMS message, you need to know which bits in the message header should be modified and what value should be assigned.

Sending SMS messages with a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem has a drawback -- the SMS transmission speed is low. As your SMS messaging application becomes more popular, it has to handle a larger amount of SMS traffic and finally the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem will not be able to take the load. To obtain a high SMS transmission speed, a direct connection to an SMSC or SMS gateway of a wireless carrier or SMS service provider is needed. However, AT commands are not used for communicating with an SMS center or SMS gateway. This means your have to make a big change to your SMS messaging application in order to move from a wireless-modem-based solution to a SMSC-based solution.

In most cases, instead of writing your own code for interacting with the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem via AT commands, a better solution is to use a high-level SMS messaging API (Application programming interface) / SDK (Software development kit) / library. The API / SDK / library encapsulates the low-level details. So, an SMS application developer does not need to know AT commands and the composition of SMS messages in the bit-level. Some SMS messaging APIs / SDKs / libraries support SMSC protocols in addition to AT commands. To move from a wireless-modem-based SMS solution to a SMSC-based SMS solution, usually you just need to modify a configuration file / property file or make a few changes to your SMS messaging application's source code.

The links to some open source and free SMS messaging libraries can be found in the article "Free Libraries/Tools for Sending/Receiving SMS with a Computer".

Another way to hide the low-level AT command layer is to place an SMS gateway between the SMS messaging application and the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem. (This has been described in the section "What is an SMS Gateway?" earlier.) Simple protocols such as HTTP / HTTPS can then be used for sending SMS messages in the application. If an SMSC protocol (e.g. SMPP, CIMD, etc) is used for communicating with the SMS gateway instead of HTTP / HTTPS, an SMS messaging API / SDK / library can be very helpful to you since it encapsulates the SMSC protocol's details.

Usually a list of supported / unsupported mobile phones or wireless modems is provided on the web site of an SMS messaging API / SDK / library or an SMS gateway software package. Remember to check the list if you are going to use an SMS messaging API / SDK / library or an SMS gateway software package.




Major Drawback of Sending SMS Messages through a Mobile Phone or GSM/GPRS Modem -- Low SMS Sending Rate
Using a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem to send SMS messages has a major drawback, that is the SMS sending rate is too low. Only 6-10 SMS messages can be sent per minute (when the "SMS over GSM" mode is used). The performance is not affected by the connection between the computer and the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem (i.e. the SMS sending rate is about the same no matter the mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem is connected to the computer through a serial cable, USB cable, Bluetooth link or infrared link) and does not depend on whether a mobile phone or GSM/GPRS modem is used (i.e. the SMS sending rate is about the same no matter a mobile phone or a GSM/GPRS modem is used). The determining factor for the SMS sending rate is the wireless network.